Directions Aristotle: Physics, Book II, Parts 1-3. (Links to an external site.)

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Directions
Aristotle: Physics, Book II, Parts 1-3. (Links to an external site.) Please read Parts 1 through 3 of Book II of Aristotle’s Physics. Parts 1-2 of Book II introduce Aristotle’s notion of ‘substance’ as an entity comprised of ‘form’ and ‘matter.’ Part 3 of Book II introduces Aristotle’s notion of the ‘four causes.’
Aristotle: Metaphysics, Book I, Part 1 (Links to an external site.). Please read Part 1 of Book I of Aristotle’s Metaphysics. This short passage introduces Aristotle’s empiricist epistemology.
Aristotle: Nicomachean Ethics, Book I, Parts 1-2 (Links to an external site.). Please read Parts 1-2 in Book I of Aristotle’s Nicomachean Ethics. Click on the link, and click on Book I. Parts 1-2 of Book I emphasize Aristotle’s idea that ethics is a ‘practical science’ and not – how we understand it today – a subcategory of philosophy (with philosophy itself being a ‘theoretical science’).
Aristotle: Nicomachean Ethics, Book II, Parts 1, 7-8 (Links to an external site.). Please read Part 1 and Parts 7-8 in Book II of Aristotle’s Nicomachean Ethics. Click on the link, and click on Book II. Part 1 introduces Aristotle’s notion of moral virtue, and Parts 7-8 introduce Aristotle’s famous theory of the ‘golden mean of moderation.’
After careful reflection, please answer the following questions:
According to Aristotle in his Metaphysics, what role do the senses play in our knowledge of objects (‘particulars’) in the world? What role does reason play? Please be thorough in your explanation, and please provide concrete examples.
In his Nicomachean Ethics, how does Aristotle explain virtue? More specifically, what makes a character trait a good one (a virtue)? (See Part 7, Book II, for Aristotle’s own example of the virtue of courage.) Please be thorough in your explanation, and – based on your best understanding of Aristotle’s theory – please provide (at least) one example of your own (in addition to Aristotle’s).

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